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香港最常見的食物致敏源

​Top Allergens in HK

背景

​現時情況

保守估計,在香港每二十位兒童就有一位患有食物敏感 [1][2][3]


根據2016年調查指,香港有95%接受過敏測試的人對至少一種食物敏感,香港的趨勢由2011至2016年已增加2倍。


在香港最常見的食物致敏源頭三位分別為雞蛋 (71.7%)、牛乳製品 (64.5%) 及鴨蛋 (54.8%),而因羊奶 (43.9%)、蠔 (30.3%) 及薑 (29.9%) 而致敏的個案亦有上升 [9][10],總體流行率數據與西方人相約 [6]


研究發現,在香港15%過敏兒童患有呼吸困難和心臟問題等嚴重反應,高於國際公認的10% 平均水平 [2][3]


只有少數兒童的過敏情況會在長大後消失,過敏問題可能會持續到成年[2]


儘管食物過敏和食物敏感引起的不良反應趨勢不斷上升 [3][7],許多香港人對食物過敏仍缺乏認知和了解 [3]


食物過敏引起的過敏反應可能會危及生命,無形造成焦慮和壓力,影響他們的生活質量[8]

從以上可見,提高對食物過敏和不耐受的認識和對患者的支持是非常重要的!

成因

香港兒童呼吸及過敏學會會長繆定逸指,過敏反應包括皮膚痕癢、腸胃不適、心律不正等,但嚴重可致氣管收縮、心臟血壓下降休克致死。全球敏感人數節節上升,繆定逸認為,情況可歸咎於遺傳因素、環境因素、多元食物造法及現代人較注重衞生等原因 [9][11]


註冊西醫鄧昌宇則指,過敏患者人數上升,主要是飲食轉變,現在的飲食加高糖、精製碳水化合物、牛乳製品、高脂肪,但現代人的基因,還沒有足夠時間,適應耕種與養殖食物 [10]


工業國家70%日常食物經過加工,主要是西方飲食、速食文化、加工食品。每年新出現化學物達2000種,當中毒素主要來自環境污染物、人工添加物、過敏原 [10]

BACKGROUND

The Situation

About 1 in every 20 children in Hong Kong has food allergy  [1][2][3].

A study in 2016 finds 95% of people who took food sensitivity test are found to be sensitive to at least one food. The prevalence in Hong Kong has increased by double from 2011 to 2016.


The top three allergens in Hong Kong is hen’s egg (71.7%), cow’s milk (64.5%) and duck’s egg (54.8%), while there are also increasing cases on goat’s milk (43.9%), oyster (30.3%) and ginger (29.9%)  [9][10]The overall prevalence data is comparable to western populations [6].


Another study finds 15% of allergic children have severe reactions like breathing difficulties and heart problems - higher than the internationally accepted average of 10%  [2][3].


Only a minority of children will grow out of their allergic diseases so the problem will likely persist into adulthood [2].


Despite the rising trend in the prevalence of food allergies and adverse food reactions [3][7], many Hong Kong people lack understanding of food allergies [3].


Anaphylactic reactions from food allergy can be life-threatening. This creates anxiety and stress which affect their quality of life [8].

As you can see, it is very important to increase the awareness on food allergies and support those who need specialty diet!

The Cause

Dr. Ting-yat Miu, President of The Hong Kong Society of Paediatric Respirology and Allergy, explains allergic reaction includes itchy skin, stomach upset, palpitation, etc. Severe ones can cause tracheal contraction, decrease in blood pressure and anaphylactic shock which may cause death.


Dr. Miu believes the cause of food allergy can be attributed to genetic factors, environmental factors, multiple food manufacturing methods and modern people pay more attention to hygiene [9][11].

Dr. Denny Tang explains the main cause can also be attributed to main dietary changes - high sugar and high fat in modern diet, refined carbohydrates and dairy products. But there is not enough time for modern genes in human to adapt to the modified farming and cultivated foods. Over 70% of daily food in developed countries are processed – mainly includes the western diet, fast-food culture and processed foods. There are 2000 kinds of new chemical substances emerging each year, mainly from environmental pollutants, artificial additives and allergens [10].
 

參考資料 References:

[1] The Hong Kong Allergy Association
[2] Chan et.al, Allergy in Hong Kong: an unmet need in service provision and training, Hong Kong Med J 2015 Feb;21(1):52¡V60
[3] Lo, " Food allergies take high toll on Hong Kong children", South China Morning Post 29 January, 2013. 
[4] Ho et al, Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Hong Kong children and teens--a population survey, Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2012 Dec;30(4):275-84.
[5] Leung et al, Parent-reported adverse food reactions in Hong Kong Chinese pre-schoolers: epidemiology, clinical spectrum and risk factors, Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009 Jun;20(4):339-46
[6] Lee et al, Food allergy in Asia: how does it compare?, Asia Pac Allergy. 2013 Jan;3(1):3-14
[7] Zilberstein et el., Anaphylaxis, J Emerg Med. 2014?47(2):182-187.
[8] Wong et al., The EuroPrevall-INCO surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children from China, India and Russia: the study methodology, Allergy 65 (2010) 385¡V390
[9] 逾9成港人食物過敏 雞蛋牛奶最危, 晴報 2017/5/18 (https://skypost.ulifestyle.com.hk/article/1815139/%E9%80%BE9%E6%88%90%E6%B8%AF%E4%BA%BA%E9%A3%9F%E7%89%A9%E9%81%8E%E6%95%8F%20%E9%9B%9E%E8%9B%8B%E7%89%9B%E5%A5%B6%E6%9C%80%E5%8D%B1)
[10] 蛋類牛奶易過敏 奇異果也是致敏水果, 蘋果日報 2017/5/18 (https://tw.appledaily.com/new/realtime/20170518/1121267/)

[11] 雞鴨蛋牛乳製品 港人最易致敏, HKET 2017/5/18 (https://topick.hket.com/article/1815124)